In academic writing, the claims you make need to be supported with credible sources of information. To avoid plagiarism, your sources must be paraphrased, summarized, or quoted AND each sentence from a source must have an in-text citation and an entry in your reference list. The next few sections will explain how to incorporate quotations, paraphrases, and summaries into your writing.
Your final draft must include the following elements:
1. Direct quotes need quotation marks and an in-text citation.
2. Paraphrases and summaries need an in-text citation.
3. Your in-text citations must have a corresponding entry in your reference list (with a few notable exceptions, which will be covered later in this tutorial).
Review the chart below to understand the purpose and frequency of each type of source incorporation.
|Definition||Purpose||Frequency of use|
|Quotations||Providing the exact language from a passage in a source.||Used when the author's words or phrases are especially powerful or well-said.||
Rewriting sentences or short sections from a source into your own words.
Should be roughly the same length as the source material.
|Used when describing specific points or ideas from a work.||Most frequently|
Giving an overview of the main points of a larger work, such a book or article.
Should be much shorter than original work.
|Used if you want to provide background but do not need to go into specific details.||Frequently|
Please read Fitchburg State University's handout, Quotation, Paraphrasing, and Summary, to clarify when you should quote versus when you should paraphrase or summarize.
Quotations are exact words or phrases borrowed directly from a source. Most of your paper should be in your own words, so quotations should be used sparingly (especially in the sciences). All quotations must have an in-text citation and an entry in your reference list.
Steps to follow when quoting:
1) Introduce your quote. You can do this by writing some lead-up text or using a signal phrase.
2) Put the quoted material in quotation marks. Be sure to reproduce the quoted material accurately.
3) Decide where you want to name the author (in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation).
4) The date and page number/paragraph number/section title/chapter title must be included.
4) Do not forget to put an entry in your reference list!
Watch this brief video by Western Libraries on using quotations in APA:
Western University [screen name]. (2017, July 19). APA style guide: in-text and quotations [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhUtnzknOGs
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018), "Staying healthy throughout your life will lower your risk of developing cancer, and improve your chances of surviving cancer if it occurs" (What Can I Do to Reduce My Risk of Breast Cancer section).
Paraphrases and summaries are used to explain someone else's ideas in your own words and phrasing.
Tips for paraphrasing and summarizing:
1. Paraphrases and summaries MUST have an in-text citation and an entry in your reference list.
2. Do not look at the original text while writing your paraphrase or summary. Cover up the source and restate the author's point in your own words and phrasing.
3. Then double-check the original text to make sure you did not use the author's words or phrasing by mistake. If the paraphrase is too close to the original, try again.
Watch "Paraphrasing Gone Bad" from SJSU King Library:
SJSU King Library [screename]. (2016, August 2). Paraphrasing gone bad [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/177295278
Read some more examples of good versus bad paraphrases: