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Criminal Justice: Add Endnotes/Footnotes-9th Edition

Resources for students and faculty doing research in criminal justice.

2. Formulating Your Endnotes

Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing

When using sources, you will need to quote, paraphrase, or summarize a source.  Here are the steps:

1) After you finish incorporating your source, you will add an endnote. The endnote can be placed at the end of a sentence or clause where the source is cited.

2) You will then write out an endnote. You can find instructions on how how to create your endnotes in the next sections. Each endnote will need a corresponding reference entry. 

You can find more information on good and bad ways of incorporating sources on the Incorporating Sources Ethically guide.

Source Incorporation Method Purpose Example
Quotations Quotations reproduce the exact language of a source. Be sure to make it clear who the information is coming from using a proper attribution tag. The American Psychiatric Association says that "every correctional system should have a mechanism for monitoring access to psychiatric care." 1
Paraphrasing Paraphrases are short summaries of key points or ideas put into your own words.  People who are mentally ill are believed to be more likely to commit violence, but this assumption is inaccurate.2
Summary Provide an overview of a work but does not provide details Nightmares are indicative of some kind of stress.3

Block Quotations in Turabian (5 lines or more):

In Turabian style, quotations of five lines or more are considered block quotations. Here are instructions on how to format them.

  • Indent the quote another half inch
  • Single space the text
  • Do NOT use quotation marks
  • Add your endnote number after the final period.

See p. 1 of this handout for an example of how to format block quotes: Main Text Tip Sheet


  • Create a separate page for your endnotes. Endnotes come after your main text and any appendices. It should come before your bibliography.
  • Write Notes at the top of the page, center, and bold it.
  • Add two blank lines after the title. Then start your first endnote.
  • You can format the endnote numbers in one of two ways:
    • a) Use a normal number and add a period and space.
    • b) Use a superscript number, with a space, but no period
  • All notes are single-spaced.
  • Indent the first line of all notes 1/2 inch.
  • Add a blank line between endnotes.
  • With some exceptions, all endnotes should have a corresponding entry in the bibliography.

To see a sample endnotes page, check out the Turabian Endnotes Tip Sheet.


Turabian's notes-bibliography citation style can be a little confusing because it has different rules for first citations and subsequent citations. Here are the steps you need to take to create endnotes for first and subsequent citations.

First Citation To A Source: 

1) After you use a source, insert an endnote. You will add it after the period of the sentence. Or if you add your quote at the beginning of a sentence, add the endnote after the clause. Check out page 1 of this Chicago NB Sample Paper to see this rule in action.

2) Write out a complete note following the instructions for that specific source type.  For example, if you cited a book, you would format an endnote for a book. See the next tab!

3) Indent the first line.

4) Make sure that the entry is single-spaced.

4) Once you have written out the full citation, you will follow the rules under subsequent citations.

Subsequent citations:

Once you have written out the full note, you will then be able to use a shortened version of the citation the rest of the time.  All subsequent citations are also single-spaced.

1) After you finish a sentence or clause, insert a footnote or endnote. All endnotes come after the punctuation!

2)  Write out a shortened form of the original citation. You have a couple of different options.

Option 1: Shortened Form of the Title

Book: Author Last Name, Shortened Form of the Work's Title, p. #

Article: Author's Last Name, "Shortened Form of the Title," p.#.

You especially want to use this version if you are citing more than one work with the same author. If the work's title is longer than four words, write a shortened version. To create a shortened version, follow these steps:

  •  Omit any articles at the beginning (a, an, the) 
  • Include two to four words that are important. This version is required if you are using more than one work by the same author.

Option 2: Author Last Name, p.#: 

  • Use this if you're only citing one work by the author.

(How do I cite the same source many times?)


NOTE: When citing page numbers, use the page numbers from which you are drawing your information. Don't put the full-set of pages in your endnotes! The full-page range for sources will go in the bibliography.

Source Type First Note

Print Book

* Four or more authors: write "et al." after the first author

      Endnote NumberAuthor First Name and Last Name, Book Title, Edition # ed. (City of Publication: Publisher, Publication Year), page #.

    1.  Stephen D. Brookfield, Teaching for Critical Thinking: Tools and Techniques to Help Students Question Their Assumptions (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2012), 171.


*If no fixed page numbers nor a version with page numbers is available, use a section header or chapter number

        Endnote Number.  Author First Name and Last Name, Book Title (Publication City: Publisher, Publication Year), page numbers OR section OR chapter, URL or Library Database Name.

    2.  Zoe A Colley, Ain't Scared of Your Jail: Arrest, Imprisonment, and the Civil Rights Movement (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2012), 86, ProQuest Ebook Central.

Book Chapter

*Cite specific pages rather than the page range in an endnote

        Endnote Number. Chapter Author First Name and Last Name, "Chapter Title," in Book Title, ed. Editor First and Last Name (Publication City: Publisher, Year), page #s.

     3. Samir Goswami, "From Street Corner to Statehouse: Survivors' Struggle for Civil Rights," in Global Perspectives on Prostitution and Sex Trafficking: Europe, Latin America, North America, and Global, ed. Rochelle L. Dalla, Lynda M. Baker, John DeFrain, and Celia Williamson (Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011), ch.13.

Journal Article

*DOI is preferable to a web URL

*If an article has four or more authors, write the first author's name and then "et al.". Then follow the directions.

      Endnote Number. Author's First Name and Last Name, "Article Title," Journal Title volume number, no. issue # ( Month/Season Year): page number, DOI OR URL OR Database. 

    4. Laura S. Caulfield, "Counterintuitive Findings From a Qualitative Study of Mental Health in English Women's Prisons," International Journal of Prisoner Health 12, no. 4 (2016): 217,

News/Magazine Article

*Include page numbers in notes, but NOT references


     Endnote Number. Author's First and Last Name, "Article Title," Magazine/Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year, URL OR Database Name.

     5. Campbell Robertson, "Crime Is Down, Yet U.S. Incarceration Rates Are Still Among the Highest in the World," New York Times, April 25, 2019,

Online Report

*Unless essential to your argument OR cited frequently, only cite in your endnotes

    Endnote Number. Author's First and Last Name OR Organizational Author, Publication Title: Subtitle (Publication City: Publisher, Year), Page number, accessed Month Day, Year, URL.

      6. Gregory Hooks and Wendy Sawyer, Mass Incarceration, COVID-19, and Community Spread (Northampton, MA: Prison Policy Initiative, 2020), accessed March 2, 2021,


*If there is no author, start with the title of the webpage

*If there is no publication date, posting, or revision, include a date of access

    Endnote Number. Author's First and Last Name, "Webpage Title," Title OR Owner of the Site, Last modified Month Date, Year  OR Access Month Date, Year, URL.

   7. Probate and Family Court, "Learn About the Types of Divorce,", last modified July 1, 2020,

Social Media

*Quotation with parenthetical citation often sufficient, but notes can be included

Quote up to the first 160 characters

*Only cite in endnotes unless frequently cited OR essential to your argument

Quotation Instructions & Example:

1) Introduce quote appropriately.

2) End the sentence with a parenthetical citation with the following information:  (Name or @username, Social Media Site, Month Day, Year).

Puff the Magic Hater points out "People are hunted in this country for experiencing addiction" (@MsKellyMHayes, Twitter, February 10, 2021).


Endnote #. First and Last Name or Organizational Name (@username), "First 160 characters of the post," Social Media site, Post Month Day, Year, Post URL.

      8. Puff the Magic Hater (@MsKellyMHayes), "People are hunted in this country for experiencing addiction. People who have substance abuse problems are not inherently harmful to other people. Police are. I used to live in constant fear," Twitter, February 10, 2021,

Personal Communication

*Examples include interviews, letters, emails, and personal electronic message

*Usually you only need to cite personal communications in the notes


    Endnote #. Sender's First and Last Name, Interview with OR message to author, Location of Interview, Interview Date.

 9. Sam Hill, Interview with author, July 7, 2020.

Indirect Citation/Secondary Source

*If you can, use the original work!

*Unlike other citation styles, Turabian has a special way of citing indirect sources in the references. See next page!

*Check out additional examples: BookArticle

Endnote #.  Original Author First and Last Name,  [Format According to Source Type], p.#, quoted in Secondary Source Author First and Last Name, [Format According to Source Type].

     10. Alan Leshner, "Addiction Is A Brain Disease, And It Matters," Science 278, no. 5335: 46, quoted in Julie Netherland and Helena Hansen, "White Opioids: Pharmaceutical Race and the War on Drugs That Wasn’t," BioSocieties 12, no. 2 (June 2017): 220,


Trying to figure out how to create endnotes in Word or Pages? Check out these helpful links!

What if my source doesn't have page numbers?

If a source does not have a page number, use chapters or section headings or paragraphs.

How many sources can I add in an endnote?

Unless your professor specifies, you can cite as many sources as you would like. You would write them in order of appearance, or, if they are all equally important, you can cite them alphabetically. Separate them with a semicolon.

(How many sources can I cite in one note)

Want all this information in one place? Please download the Bay State Library's Turabian Endnotes handout!